Return to Article Details Praxeological tales as an innovative media product for fostering successful personalities in primary school pupils

Praxeological tales as an innovative media product for fostering successful personalities in primary school pupils

Hryhorii V. Tereshchuk1[0000-0003-1717-961X],
Iryna I. Kuzma2[0000-0002-1219-8216], and 
Oleksandra I. Yankovych1,3[0000-0003-4253-5954]
1 Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University,
2 Maksyma Kryvonosa Str., Ternopil, 46027, Ukraine

2 Ternopil Regional Municipal Institute of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education,
1 V. Hromnytskoho Str., Ternopil, 46027, Ukraine

3 Kujawy and Pomorze University in Bydgoszcz,
55-57 Toruńska Str., 85-023, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Abstract. This study aims to substantiate the technology of forming a successful personality in primary school pupils through implementing media education, focusing on using praxeological tales. The research methods include theoretical analysis of literary sources, modelling, and empirical techniques such as observation, questionnaires, surveys, and experiments. The results show that praxeological tales, which reflect the basic rules and factors of achieving success, can be an effective, innovative media product in shaping successful pupils. The proposed technology model incorporates praxeological tales and other media education tools and techniques. An experimental study involving control and experimental groups of primary school pupils demonstrated that the percentage of children with a high level of successful personality development increased from 9.6% to 23.1% in the experimental groups. In contrast, the percentage of low levels decreased from 42.3% to 20.2%. The findings suggest that forming successful personalities in primary school through media education using praxeological tales can help increase pupils’ media literacy, develop key life competencies, and prepare children for future self-realisation.

Keywords: successful personality primary school pupils media education praxeological tales educational technology

1 Introduction

1.1 The problem setting

In the last decade, primary education pedagogy has witnessed a growing interest in the problem of success. This heightened attention can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, success is often associated with financial independence or wealth, and Ukraine, not being among the countries with a high level of economic development, sees the cultivation of successful personality traits in children as a potential pathway to overcoming poverty. This education should commence at the primary school level, as the success of a primary school child serves as a foundation for achievements in high school and a basis for life-long self-realisation. Secondly, the introduction of the Concept of a New Ukrainian School [8] and the New State Standard of Primary Education [2] has directed the focus of primary school teachers towards developing students’ initiative, entrepreneurship, critical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, and self-organisation abilities, which are considered key competencies. Thirdly, the implementation of media education, the relevance of which is reflected in the Concept of Media Education Implementation in Ukraine [1] and Typical educational programs, is another crucial issue in primary education. Forming a successful pupil through media education enables the development of media culture, information, and digital competence, which are essential for success.

However, despite the powerful influence of media on personality, its role in educating successful pupils is underestimated, particularly in primary schools. The imperfection or lack of appropriate role models in Ukrainian media, especially in literary texts, and the misplaced emphasis on values that facilitate goal achievement can be significant factors contributing to the society’s acute need for an intellectual elite and effective managers who can lead Ukraine to a prominent position among states with a high human development index. The analysis of scientific sources underscores the necessity for a comprehensive approach to fostering successful personalities in primary school pupils, focusing on harnessing the potential of media education and developing innovative educational technologies.

1.2 Literature review

Scientific research on the problems of forming a successful personality is carried out in several ways: the formation of a successful personality in primary school, the factors to achieve success, and the role of the media in forming a successful personality. The significance of childhood success for life self-realisation and ways of preventing a loser complex are highlighted by Glasser [9], who wrote in particular: “It is here [in the primary school classroom] that the child most often forms the lifelong concept of himself as a successful or a failing person. That is why the impact of school failure is so devastating: it attacks and destroys the child’s initial identity as a successful person” [9, p. 39].

Wagner and Ruch [25] have shown the interconnection between character strengths (such as perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, love of learning, hope, gratitude, perspective, teamwork, and social intelligence), positive classroom behaviour, school achievements, because “being the nice student” will make the grade in just any subject. “It seems rather that character strengths facilitate achievement-related behaviour that may lead to better school achievements” [25].

Based on the results of this research, we can affirm that character strengths directly influence achieving success in school. However, these qualities should be formed and developed.

Essential to our research is the ideas of MacBeath [19] on the necessity of gaining experience by a pupil to overcome difficulties to achieve success in the future. In this context, MacBeath [19] states: “The experience to deal with failure is a hugely telling indicator of school success and success in later life, the seeds of which are planted early. That every failure is a learning opportunity has gained the status of a cliché, but can only become a classroom reality when failure no longer carries high stakes penalties” [19, p. 61].

A thorough analysis of the problem of the six-year-old children’s success was conducted by Maksymova [20]. The scientist substantiated the pedagogical conditions for the achievement of success by pupils in the first grade in their productive activities in the process of subject-subject interaction and identified the diagnostic tools for the development of success.

We have interpreted the concept of the “successful personality of the primary school pupil” based on literature analysis and our research. This is a pupil whose activity results correspond to the specified goals, which he/she and his/her surroundings consider successful, based on modern social norms, customs, values, and standards.

Given the relevance of media education, the researchers investigate the role of the media in forming a successful personality. The reflection of stereotypes about human success in media is the subject of scientific research of Carr et al. [6], Grzeszczyk [12], Kolber [14] and others. Kolber [14] hereby argues that comparing himself with the ideal created in the media leads to negative consequences (the appearance of low self-esteem, such a person does not feel happy) [14, p. 79-80]. The positive role of the media in forming a successful pupil is reflected in the works of Alishev and Gilmutdinov [4], Grynyik [11], Krystopchuk and Yakymchuk [15], and others, who, studying the factors of success of schoolchildren in Finland and Singapore, found that the positive ideas of the experience of these countries are the dissemination in the media of the stories of success in the diligent and disciplined study and work environment, systematic reading of books, periodicals [4, p. 245], [11, p. 2].

As the resource base analysis shows, the works of Grant [10], Hill [13], Kukk [16], etc., are insufficiently popularised in the Ukrainian media. These authors proved that humanity, compassion, and help to those who need it allow you to become successful faster than sharp elbows, cruelty and cunning. Children are fond of fairy tales at primary school and compose them by themselves. However, there is a lack of fairy tales in which the rules of achieving success are determined. Tales in which such rules are reflected are interpreted as praxeological.

1.3 Research question

A thorough analysis of the resource base reveals that the problem of forming a successful personality in primary school pupils through media education, mainly using praxeological tales, has not been the subject of a separate study in the context of Ukrainian primary education. This research gap presents an opportunity to explore the potential of innovative educational technologies in fostering success-oriented mindsets and competencies in young learners.

The purpose of this article is to substantiate the technology of forming a successful personality in primary school pupils through the implementation of media education, with a specific focus on the use of praxeological tales. As a novel media product, praxeological tales are hypothesised to effectively shape pupils’ attitudes, values, and behaviours related to success. By investigating the role of these tales in the broader context of media education and personality development, this study aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge and provide practical insights for educators and policymakers.

The research question guiding this study can be formulated as follows: How can the technology of forming a successful personality in primary school pupils be effectively implemented through media education, with a specific focus on the use of praxeological tales, to foster key competencies and success-oriented mindsets in young learners?

Addressing this question requires a comprehensive examination of the theoretical foundations of success, media education, and personality development, as well as an empirical investigation of the effectiveness of the proposed technology in real-world educational settings. The findings of this study are expected to have significant implications for primary education practices and policies, contributing to the development of evidence-based strategies for nurturing successful personalities in the context of the New Ukrainian School reform.

1.4 Research methods

To address the research question and achieve the study’s purpose, a mixed-methods approach was employed, combining theoretical and empirical research methods. The use of multiple methods allows for a comprehensive examination of the problem and provides a more robust foundation for the development and validation of the proposed technology.

The theoretical methods utilised in this study include:

  • Functional and structural analysis was used to examine the components and relationships within the system of forming a successful personality in primary school pupils, considering the role of media education and praxeological tales.
  • Interpretive and analytical analysis involved the interpretation and analysis of literary and informational sources related to the research problem, enabling the identification of key concepts, theories, and best practices in the field.
  • Contrastive and comparative analysis was applied to compare and contrast different approaches to fostering success in primary school pupils, highlighting the proposed technology’s unique features and potential benefits.
  • Modeling was employed to develop a model of the technology for forming a successful personality in primary school pupils by implementing media education using praxeological tales.

The empirical methods used in this study include:

  • Observation of primary school pupils’ behaviour, attitudes, and interactions in the context of media education and success-oriented activities.
  • Questionnaires and surveys were used to collect data on pupils’ perceptions, experiences, and opinions related to success, media education, and praxeological tales.
  • Confirmatory and forming experiment: a quasi-experimental design was implemented, involving children from the second and third grades of comprehensive schools in Ternopil, Khmelnytskyi, and Mukachevo. The experiment aimed to test the effectiveness of the proposed technology in forming successful personalities among primary school pupils.

The combination of theoretical and empirical methods allows for a comprehensive investigation of the research problem, providing a solid foundation for developing, implementing, and evaluating the technology for forming successful personalities in primary school pupils through media education using praxeological tales.

2 Results

2.1 Media education tools for the formation of a successful personality of primary school pupils

In primary school, due to the relevance of media education, children now know what media is and which are. Traditional media used by the pupils of the first-degree schools include visual (fiction, textbooks, newspapers, magazines, pictures, photographs), audio (radio), and audiovisual (theatre, television programs). Innovative ones include a computer, a tablet, a mobile phone, the Internet, etc. Unfortunately, as evidenced by the analysis of scientific sources and empirical studies, their ability to form a successful pupil is only partially used.

The textbooks for primary school (“Literary Reading”, “Ukrainian Language”, “Mathematics”, “I Am in the World”, and “I Explore the World”) were analysed in terms of the success problems reflected in them. Of all the educational books, only in the textbook by Nadiia M. Bibik, “I Am in the World” for the 3rd grade, various aspects of successful activities are sufficiently thoroughly presented. In particular, the social and value orientation of specific goals (the story “What to be?”), the formation of the qualities of a successful person (“Human virtues”, “How to succeed”) is reflected. After reading these stories, primary school pupils learn that a person is born to leave a trace behind himself/herself – in memory, in the hearts of other people; one needs to learn to live for people; to achieve success in life, one needs to be hard-working, persistent, not postpone what can be done today, and even anger and rudeness prevent you from achieving a desirable [5, p. 26, 29, 33, 70]. Here is an example of the inventor Edison, an incredibly hard-working man. There was a ninety (!) per cent of work in the sweat of his brow reflected in his inventions. The rest relate to talent, inspiration, intuition, and other coincidences [5, p. 29]. In this textbook, the economic aspects of success (economy, thrift) are reflected [5, p. 74]. However, in general, in educational books for primary school students, the problem of success is rarely reflected fragmentarily without respect to the principle of continuity. We did not detect the texts where the children were taught the art of defining goals and analysing their achievements, overcoming obstacles, how communicating properly, treating time with caution, and helping friends, although such knowledge is essential for the formation of a key competence for life – the ability to study.

The fragments of the materials on success are partially presented in fiction and children’s periodicals.

In periodicals and books, Ukrainian folk art is presented, particularly the proverbs and sayings, which act on the development of a child completely opposite. On the one hand, they warn against ambitious plans: “Who flies high, falls low”, and on the other, they call for persistent work that suits the vocation.

There are extremely few stories that would form the winner, the builder of the Ukrainian state.

In Ukraine (and this is proved by Danyliak [7], Semeniako [21], etc.), periodicals and fiction give way in the struggle for a little user to television, a computer, a tablet, and a mobile phone. Unfortunately, there are not so many examples of success. In addition, there is no substantiated system of work for the formation of the success of a primary school pupil by media tools.

The analysis of media tools for the formation of success allows us to conclude that it is necessary to create a new media product that would be interesting, instructive, would meet modern trends in achieving success. We have created praxeological tales – fairy tales in which animals share their recipes for success.

2.2 Praxeological tale as a new means of forming a successful pupil

Until recently, the rule (popular among people and broadcast in the media) was that strong authoritarian persons who had no pity or compassion for others became successful. Only business and nothing personal – the heroes of the movies like to repeat. However, such rules of life are survivals of the last millennium. Modern research (Grant [10], Kukk [16] etc. proves that those people who care about others become successful the fastest. In particular, Christopher Kukk’s book points to a common mistake of children who believe that it is impossible to be successful and help people at the same time [16, p. 16]. That is why the society is becoming so hostile. However, sensitivity is the value that contributes to achieving the goals. There is a biological basis for such a conclusion. Studies of the DRD4 gene, which is responsible for dopamine production, show that the level of success in school depends on the atmosphere of sensitivity in the classroom [16, p. 12]. Cooperation, but not competition, has been a leading factor in evolution. A society in which there is mutual support has better chances of prosperity and survival.

These and other trends of success are reflected in praxeological tales. In particular, the fairy tale “The Best in the Forest” is about the Striped Tiger who has many friends: a Hare, a Squirrel, a Hedgehog, an Elk, a Wolf, a Wild Boar and other animals. The Striped Tiger helped them all and received gifts from them from time to time. Everyone felt comfortable until one day an Owl organised a competition to identify who was the fastest, the prettiest and the smartest of all... That is when the real battles broke out.

The Tiger won all possible titles in the competition among other forest residents. He was the fastest, the best at long jumping, the most handsome and the smartest.

The beasts began to envy. The Fox decided that there was some monkey business and accused the Tiger of bribing the judges. The Wolf was desperately looking for the gang, ready to pour green paint onto the fine Tiger’s fur in order to prevent him from boasting. And the Elk was gossiping about the Tiger as not being the smartest.

The Tiger found himself at a crossroads and was puzzled about whether to get upset or be happy. How many friends he had lost, and how many enemies he made. The Owl advised what to do: continue to do good, and the forest will change for the better [17].

So, the main lesson of the fairy tale is to help friends despite their envy, unjust accusations, and actions. Even though the winner usually faces difficulties, he should help his friends even more.

An important rule of success – to do good deeds – is also embodied in the fairy tale “How to Become a King of Beasts”. The fairy tale is about the little Bear Cub (awkward, unskillful). He wanted to become successful and asked for advice from a Lion, the King of Beasts.

And he got the answer: “You will not believe it, Cubby! However, like you, I went through that all when I was a kid. Other animals did a number on me, too. And then, I decided to help someone every single day, someone who is more vulnerable than me. At first, I helped a Mouse, then – a Squirrel, then – a Fox and afterwards – a Wolf. And I felt myself so strong that now I am not afraid of any beasts!!!” [17].

Children learn that everyone has his/her path to success. But obstacles cannot be overcome without good deeds. You can become successful and authoritative by helping friends who find it difficult to overcome obstacles.

However, the praxeological tale is only one element of the system’s complex work that needs to be done to form the pupil’s success. Grounding the system of work on the formation of the primary school pupil’s success using traditional and innovative media tools, including praxeological tales, remains relevant.

2.3 Model of the technology of forming a successful personality of a primary school pupil during media education implementation (using praxeological tales)

To determine the level of formation of a successful personality of primary school pupils, to prove the work system in this direction, using media education, a study involving 160 pupils of schools in the cities of Ternopil, Khmelnytskyi, and Mukachevo was conducted. The results of this research were highlighted in the article [23].

Pupils were asked to answer the questionnaire.

A list of questions and answers to them (children could choose several answers to questions 2, 4, 5) is shown in table 1.


Table 1: List of questions and answers of the pupils to a questionnaire.










Question content

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)











1. Who do you consider as a successful person?

earning a lot of money
16

achieving what was planned
50

respected by other people
36

has a lot of different activities
58

other variants











2. What features are inherent to a successful person?

selfconfidence
95

persistence
92

diligence
90

sociability
23

other features (write them)











3. Do you consider yourself a successful person?

Yes
137

No
23











4. Who is the example for you to succeed in?

hero of a fairy tale or a story (write who)
16

person you heard about on the TV (write who)
11

mom, dad
117

a teacher
13

there is no example to succeed;
3

other variants











5. Where do you get information about success and successful people from?

school textbooks

17

children’s magazines and newspapers

6

fiction

6

TV programs

51

radio programs

1

the Internet

48

teachers

45

parents

32

theatre performances

6











6. Choose your sex

Male

82

Female

78












Therefore, it was found that 85.6% of children consider themselves successful (almost the same number consider their parents to be successful, since for 73% of the respondents, their parents themselves serve as examples of success), but only a third of the respondents correctly understand the concept of “success” (achievement of the planned result), and another third is mistaken in the interpretation of “success”, considering that a successful person has many activities, regardless of the result they get. According to the respondents, the leading qualities necessary to succeed are self-confidence, diligence and persistence. At the same time, before the forming stage of the experiment and reading praxeological tales, pupils did not mention sensitivity as a quality necessary for success.

The positive aspect may be found in the fact that mom and dad serve as an example of achieving success for their children. However, unfortunately, rarely (for 6.9% of children) it is a teacher. Children receive information about their success mainly from television programs, the Internet, and teachers. This result is not surprising since television and the Internet are the most popular media among pupils. However, in the context of achieving success, the need to improve the content of textbooks, increase interest in children’s periodicals, write and read fairy tales on the themes of success, raise the role of sensitivity and kindness as qualities necessary for achieving goals, as well as system work of parents and teachers, aimed at creating media production by children, which would aim them at success.

The analysis of educational and methodological publications, scientific literature, children’s media, and empirical research has shown the need for improving the technology of formation of a successful personality of the primary school pupil during media education implementation [23], first of all, due to creation in class teams the environment of sensitivity, kindness; studying, independent writing of praxeological tales. This technology ensures systemic work, the relevance of which is revealed at the stage of the survey of children. In modern science, technology is usually called information and communication and media education technologies. However, it is also advisable to call technology as such a learning process, which has the characteristics of technological feasibility: systemic, diagnostic, algorithmic, reproducible, predictive (the results of an activity match a specific goal), as well as the following structural components: conceptual and target, content, procedural and result-analytical.

To substantiate the diagnostic tools of the investigated technology, which allows us to check whether a high and sufficient level of formation of a successful personality of a primary school pupil is ensured, the work of scientists on diagnostics of competencies of primary school pupils in particular media literacy, as well as the results of empirical research, have been analysed.

In the technology under study, the criteria for forming a successful personality of a primary school pupil during media education implementation are determined by value-oriented, cognitive and communicative, activity and creative, evaluative and analytical [23]. Characteristics of the indicators of the levels (high, sufficient, low) of the formation of a successful personality of primary school pupils during media education implementation following the justified criteria are reflected in table 2.


Table 2: Criteria and indicators of the formation of a successful personality of primary school pupils.


Indicators of the formation of primary school pupils’ progress

Criteria for the formation of a successful personality



  • Setting the goals (determined, determined without complying with the rules of goal setting, non-determined);
  • the level of differentiation of moral and ethical values, judgments about the achievement of success (based on the definition of good and evil characters in the media, good and bad deeds; qualities that allow becoming successful): deep evaluative judgments, different degrees of the depth of evaluative judgments, evaluative judgments about the behaviour of the characters of the media are largely absent.

Valuable and target



  • Level of awareness of the types and functions of the media;
  • level of awareness of success, stages of successful activity;
  • level of communication on topics of success in the media (high, sufficient, low ability to polysubject interaction)
  • the dynamics of educational achievement levels.

Cognitive and communicative



  • Activity level of actions (high, medium, low);
  • the level of creative activity and independence during the creation of media products (first of all fairy tales) on the theme of success (the ease of inventing constructive ideas and their independent realisation, situationally in the production of creative ideas and implementation with the help of adults and peers, the rarity in the production of constructive ideas under the influence of adults and peers);
  • the level of realisation in the life of innovations from the media about success: overcoming obstacles, performing exercises to increase the success rate (constantly, occasionally, never);
  • the level of formation of the ability to adhere to the rules of safe behaviour when working with a computer; restrict yourself to accessing modern technical devices: tablet, gadgets, mobile phone (high, sufficient, low).

Activity and creative



  • Analysis of own level of success (adequate with argumentation, with errors in the argument, overestimated or undervalued without arguments);
  • setting the prospects for increasing the formation of success (expressed skills, partially expressed, absent).

Evaluative and analytical




The pupil of a high level of formation of a successful personality can set goals, establish the relationship between the success of the heroes and their values, be aware of the main concepts of success, the stages of successful activity, communicate well on the topic of media success, demonstrates the positive dynamics of educational achievements; models victorious heroes, write small and creative works, fairy tales on his/her own, creates projects and drawings, worries about his/her health, without abusing the length of contacts with the media, uses media innovations to improve the level of success; adequately determining the level of success, determines the prospects of self-development using the ideas of media education.

A pupil of a sufficient level, unlike a representative of a high one, makes insignificant mistakes in goal-setting, establishing the relationship between the success of the heroes and their values; in the interpretation of concepts in the field of success and successful activity, talks about the success of heroes in the media depending on the situation; the level of educational achievements is either unchanged or a slight increase is observed, creates media production (fairy tales) on the topic of success with the help of adults and peers, situationally showing creativity, does exercises periodically and adheres to the success tips found in the media, sometimes violate media usage rules; makes errors, defining the level of success, define the prospects of self-development using the ideas of media education with the help of a teacher.

As for the low-level children, they are not able to set goals, do not track the connection between the hero’s values from the media and his success, have elementary knowledge of success and successful activity or lack of this knowledge, the level of academic achievement is either unchanged or decreasing, has no model for imitation, sometimes creates a media product about success with the help of adults without creativity, often violates media usage rules, cannot and does not want to adequately determine its level of success and the prospects of self-development.

The feasibility of some of the indicators can be doubtful for some reasons. For example, why is it so crucial for a successful person to follow the rules of safe conduct while working with a computer? Restrict yourself from accessing modern technical devices: tablets, gadgets, and mobile phones. However, the very safe, rational use of the media makes it possible to preserve the physical, mental, and spiritual health that is necessary to succeed.

To determine during the experimental study the levels of the formation of children’s media literacy, a set of diagnostic methods were proposed: observation, questionnaires, surveys, and analysis of the products of the child’s activity (modelled ideal, project about success). Ultimately, the level of formation of media literacy was determined based on the expert judgment method (the experts were a teacher, a representative from parents, and the pupil who carried out the self-assessment). In this case, the child could gain a maximum of 2 points on the level of expression of the motivational and value criteria indicators; 4 points – cognitive and communicative with activity and creativity; and 2 points – evaluative and analytical (total of 12 points). Representatives of the high level gain from 9 to 12 points, medium – from 5 to 8 points, and low – from 1 to 4 points. This corresponds to the traditional three-point scale (3 points – high, 2 – medium, 1 – low) of the formation of competencies.

After conducting the confirmatory experiment, it was found out that 17 (10.6%) children are at high level, 78 children (48.8% – on medium), 65 children (40.6%) – on a low level of formation of a successful personality. It was found that the level of success could be higher due to the development of media competencies and the positive dynamics of educational achievements.

The analysis of the results of the confirmatory experiment, scientific and educational and methodical sources made it possible to improve a model of the technology of formation of a successful personality of a primary school pupil during media education implementation, supplementing it with an innovative media product – a praxeological tale (figure 1).


PIC

Fig. 1: Technology of formation of the successful personality of a primary school pupil during media education implementation (using praxeological tales).


Its purpose (formation of a successful personality of a primary school pupil) corresponds to legislative acts, educational concepts, and the State standard of primary education. Based on the main principles of these documents, methodological approaches (systemic, personal, humanistic, informational) and principles are determined (respect for national traditions, the priority of moral and ethical values, and aesthetic inspiration). The model of technology reflects the need for the implementation of the pedagogy of the heart and the pedagogy of success, the main ideas of which are grounded by Łopatkowa [18], Sukhomlinskii [22]. In our study, the implementation of the pedagogy of heart means that every child should feel the love and care of teachers, parents and classmates: a minimum of competition and a maximum of trust and confidence in the success of each child at the same time, each pupil feels the need to help peers, older people.

The content component of the technology embodied the theoretical and methodological foundations of success, media education tools. The elements of the procedural component are the algorithm of the actions of the participants of the pedagogical interaction (pupil, teachers, parents) acting on the principles of partnership pedagogy; forms of education for children (the creation of electronic books “Rules of Success Achievement”, “Stories of Success” that ensure continuity in the formation of success), methods (conversations about media success, exercises, projects “How to determine life goals”, “Sensitivity and cruelty: which wins?”, “Rivalry or cooperation: my choice?”, “How to overcome obstacles”, “How to increase self-esteem”) and forms and methods of working with parents (conversations, pieces of training).

Diagnostic tools (criteria, level indicators) allow one to verify the effectiveness of the technology under study.

2.4 Organisation and analysis of the results of experimental research

In order to test the effectiveness of the designed technology, a forming experiment was carried out in 2018 (the first stage, which involved the introduction of the technology for the formation of a successful personality of a primary school pupil during media education implementation) [3]; 2019–2020 (the second stage, during which the improved technology of formation of successful personality during media education implementation was introduced; it was based on the use of praxeological tales as innovative media products, improving the moral and psychological climate in the children’s team, strengthening the humanisation of pupil relationships).

Since it is impossible to investigate all the types of activities involving children (someone is successful in one activity, and someone else in another), we have stopped on the leading types: studying, media education activities of the primary school children and their self-improvement activities. Control (106 persons) and experimental (104 persons) groups of the third-grade pupils (four classes in each group) of comprehensive schools and educational complexes of Ternopil, Khmelnytskyi, and Mukachevo were formed. The formation level of their success was diagnosed (the diagnosis results are presented in table 3). Traditional forms and methods of forming success were used in control groups and in the experiments. However, as an innovative component, the developed technology that strengthens the humanisation of relations between pupils, praxeological tales, as an innovative component, was introduced.


Table 3: Dynamics of the formation of successful personality levels of primary school pupils.





Levels
Control group
Experimental group




Before experimentAfter experimentBefore experimentAfter experiment





High 11 (10.4%) 13 (12.3%) 10 (9.6%) 24 (23.1%)
Sufficient 51 (48.1%) 54 (50.9%) 50 (48.1%) 59 (56.7%)
Low 44 (41.5%) 39 (36.8%) 44 (42.3%) 21 (20.2%)






The implementation of the technology was preceded by preliminary work with the teachers of the experimental classes that received a specially designed educational methodological textbook for raising their level of competence in the field of educational technologies, in particular, media education, information and communication, and the organisation of successful activities [171826]. For teachers, colloquies and counselling were conducted. Students of Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University and Khmelnytskyi Humanitarian and Pedagogical Academy were involved in the measurement of the results of the study.

As technology provides for the formation of a successful personality in primary school pupils, along with the implementation of media education and the formation of key competencies for life, in the experimental classes, pupils’ knowledge of the media, their types and functions, information search, copyright, safe use of digital media, media communication ethics, etc. has deepened.

Differences in the formation of a successful personality between control and experimental groups of children were revealed during the lessons of “Literature Reading”, “Ukrainian Language”, and “I Explore the World”. While studying each subject in the experimental classes, attention was focused on the problems of success (for which the corresponding texts were selected). Particular attention was paid to overcoming obstacles, and the ways to overcome difficulties were discussed. During the experiment, acute topics were considered, particularly envy and sincere joy for friends’ success, whether it was worth creating an ideal and following it, etc.

The most effective forms of working with primary school pupils were the creation of electronic books on successful children, watching films about the success of people with special needs, including the author of the book “Life Without Limits” [24] an American Nick Vujicic, Italian singer who lost his eyesight, Andrea Bocelli, a Ukrainian artist Dasha Bezkosta, who having infantile cerebral palsy, draws pictures using her toes, etc. Effective methods include an analysis of the behaviour of heroes of stories, praxeological tales, the justification of which features of the character can help to achieve success; creation and discussion of various projects, primarily “How to determine life goals”, “Sensitivity and cruelty: which wins?”, “Rivalry or cooperation: my choice?”

In both control and experimental groups, key competencies were formed among pupils following the Concept of the New Ukrainian School [8], the State Standard of Primary Education [2]. Their formation is undoubtedly an essential factor in achieving success. So, during the experiment, we predicted an increase in the formation of a successful personality in both control and experimental groups, which eventually happened.

According to the results of the forming experiment, 23.1% (24) of the respondents of the experimental groups were at a high level, 56.7% (59) were at a sufficient level, and 20.2% (21) were at a low level.

In experimental groups, the percentage of children with a high level of successful personality development (from 9.6% to 23.1%) has increased, and the percentage of a low level has decreased (from 42.3% to 20.2%).

In control groups, the number of children at the high level of formation of a successful personality increased by 1.9%, and of sufficient—by 2.8%. The number of low-level representatives decreased by 4.7%.

The increase in the formation of successful personality pupils in experimental groups was due to skilful goal-setting, awareness of the value of media education for life success, the formation of knowledge about success, successful activity, the creation of media production on successful activities – fairy tales about success, e-books “Rules of Success”, “Stories of Success”, “Children-inventors”; the analysis of works in which a life ideal is represented; projects “Sensitivity and cruelty: which wins?”, “Rivalry or cooperation: my choice?”, as well as due to children’s compliance with the media usage rules, and through the study of praxeological tales, the creation of an environment of mutual support and assistance in the classroom. Positive impact on the results of the experiment also included the introduction of the pedagogy of heart, humanisation of relations in the classroom, increasing the level of formation of children’s teams, raising the level of media culture of parents, and their awareness of the problems of upbringing a successful child.

Indicators of pupils who were less subject to changes are the dynamics of their academic achievement levels, the level of their communicativeness and creativity, and the definition of their prospects for self-development.

3 Conclusions and prospects for further research

The present study has successfully substantiated the technology of forming a successful personality in primary school pupils by implementing media education, specifically focusing on using praxeological tales. The research findings demonstrate that this innovative approach can effectively address several critical issues, including enhancing pupils’ media literacy, fostering key competencies for life, and preparing children for future self-realisation, all of which contribute to strengthening the Ukrainian state.

As a novel media product, praxeological tales have proven to be a valuable tool in shaping pupils’ attitudes and behaviours related to success. These tales emphasise the connection between success and positive character traits such as sensitivity, humanity, and the ability to support others in need. By incorporating these tales into the broader framework of media education, educators can create a nurturing environment that promotes the development of successful personalities.

The experimental study conducted as part of this research has provided empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of the proposed technology. The results show a significant increase in the percentage of children with a high level of successful personality development (from 9.6% to 23.1%) and a decrease in the percentage of low-level development (from 42.3% to 20.2%) in the experimental groups. These findings underscore the potential of this technology to make a meaningful impact on the lives of primary school pupils.

The implications of this study extend beyond the classroom, as the formation of successful personalities in primary school can have far-reaching effects on society. By equipping children with the necessary skills, knowledge, and attitudes to succeed in life, educators can contribute to developing a stronger, more resilient, and prosperous Ukrainian state.

However, it is essential to acknowledge that this study is just the beginning of a broader exploration of the role of media education and praxeological tales in fostering successful personalities. Further research is needed to investigate the long-term effects of this technology and its applicability in diverse educational contexts. Additionally, the praxeological principles of content formation in primary education present a promising avenue for future research, as they may offer valuable insights into the design and implementation of effective educational interventions.

References

[1]    Kontseptsiia vprovadzhennia mediaosvity v Ukraini (nova redaktsiia) (2016), URL https://ms.detector.media/mediaosvita/post/16501/2016-04-27-kontseptsiya-vprovadzhennya-mediaosvity-v-ukraini-nova-redaktsiya/

[2]    Derzhavnyi standart pochatkovoi zahalnoi osvity [The State Standard of Primary Education)] (2017), URL https://www.mon.gov.ua/images/standart/derj_standart_pochatk_new.doc

[3]    A typical educational program developed under the guidance of Savchenko O. Ya., the 1–2 grade (2019), URL https://mon.gov.ua/storage/app/media/zagalna%20serednya/programy-1-4-klas/2019/11/1-2-dodatki.pdf

[4]    Alishev, T., Gilmutdinov, A.: Singapore experience: Creation of a world level education system. Educational Studies Moscow (4), 227–246 (2010), https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2010-4-227-246

[5]    Bibik, N.M.: I am in the World. The 3rd grade. Osnova, Kharkiv (2014)

[6]    Carr, A., Kariyawasam, A., Casil, M.: A study of the organizational characteristics of successful cooperatives. Organization Development Journal 26(1), 79–87 (2008), URL https://www.proquest.com/openview/06ea12ff5c9e3103fe2f6322688e985a/

[7]    Danyliak, R.Z.: The ideas of moral education of primary school pupils on the pages of the national children’s periodicals (late 20 th – early 21st centuries). The dissertation for the academic degree of the candidate of pedagogical sciences in specialty 13.00.01 – general pedagogy and history of pedagogy, Drohobych State Pedagogical University named after Ivan Franko, Drohobych (2017), URL https://nrat.ukrintei.ua/searchdoc/0417U001997

[8]    Elkin, O., Hrynevych, L., kalashnikova, S., Khobzey, P., Kobernyk, I., Kovtunets, V., Makarenko, O., Malakhova, O., Nanayeva, T., Shiyan, R., Usatenko, H.: The New Ukrainian School: conceptual principles of secondry school reform (2017), URL https://mon.gov.ua/storage/app/media/zagalna%20serednya/Book-ENG.pdf

[9]    Glasser, W.: Highlights from schools without failure. Educational Horizons 52(1), 39–42 (1973), URL http://www.jstor.org/stable/42924062

[10]    Grant, A.D.: The personality characteristics of acceptors and rejectors of the newer educational media among secondary teachers of wisconsin. British Journal of Educational Technology 3(2), 129–136 (1972), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.1972.tb00581.x

[11]    Grynyik, S.P.: Sumlinna pratsia: yak finy pobuduvaly uspishnu systemu osvity [steady work: how finns built a successful system of education]. Visnyk pisliadyplomnoi osvity (5), 57–64 (2011), URL http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Vpo_2011_5_10

[12]    Grzeszczyk, E.: Success: American patterns – Polish realities. Publishing house IFiS PAN, Warszawa (2003)

[13]    Hill, N.: The Law of Success in 16 Lessons. Tribeca Books (1928)

[14]    Kolber, M.: Wirtualna koncepcja człowieka sukcesu – codzienność – rzeczywistość szkolna [Virtual concept of a man of success – daily life – school reality]. Przegląd Pedagogiczny (2), 78–87 (2016), https://doi.org/10.34767/PP.2016.02.05

[15]    Krystopchuk, T., Yakymchuk, I.: Mediaosvitni tekhnolohii yak zasib pidvyshchennia yakosti osvitnoi diialnosti koledzhu [Media education technologies as a means of improving the quality of college’s educational activity]. Nova pedahohichna dumka (1), 50–53 (2018), URL http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Npd_2018_1_14

[16]    Kukk, C.L.: The Compassionate Achiever: How Helping Others Fuels Success. HarperOne (2017)

[17]    Kuzma, I.: Praxeological tales. Vector, Ternopil (2019)

[18]    Łopatkowa, M.: Pedagogy of heart. School and Pedagogical Publ. House, Warsaw (1992)

[19]    MacBeath, J.: Future of Teaching Profession. Leadership for Learning, the Cambridge Network (2012), URL https://download.ei-ie.org/Docs/WebDepot/EI%20Study%20on%20the%20Future%20of%20Teaching%20Profession.pdf

[20]    Maksymova, O.O.: Formuvannia uspishnoi osobystosti shestyrichnoho pershoklasnyka [Formation of a successful personality of the six-year pupil of the first form]. Zhytomyr State University, Zhytomyr (2013)

[21]    Semeniako, Y.: Sotsialno-pedahohichni problemy suchasnosti: mediabezpeka ditei doshkilnoho viku [Socio-pedagogical problems of the modernity: media security of preschool children]. Osvitnii prostir Ukrainy (8), 137–142 (2016)

[22]    Sukhomlinskii, V.: Urgent problems of the theory and practice of education. Soviet Education 4(7), 3–12 (1962), https://doi.org/10.2753/RES1060-939304073

[23]    Tereshchuk, H.V., Kuzma, I.I., Yankovych, O.I., Falfushynska, H.I.: The formation of a successful personality of a pupil in ukrainian primary school during media education implementation. CTE Workshop Proceedings 6, 145–158 (Mar 2019), https://doi.org/10.55056/cte.374

[24]    Vujicic, N.: Life Without Limits: Inspiration for a Ridiculously Good Life. WaterBrook (2012)

[25]    Wagner, L., Ruch, W.: Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement. Frontiers in Psychology 6, 610 (2015), ISSN 1664-1078, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00610

[26]    Yankovych, O., Shorobura, I., Binytska, O., Binytska, K., Czepil, M., Karpenko, O., Zharkova, I., Hladiuk, T., Matiiash, V.: Primary school pupils’ problem-solving skills formation. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala 12(2), 148–168 (Jun 2020), https://doi.org/10.18662/rrem/12.2/271